Sumerianz Journal of Medical and Healthcare

Online ISSN: 2663-421X
Print ISSN: 2706-8404

Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)

Journal Website:


Volume 4 Issue 2 (2021)

Assessment of Electrolytes, Urea and Creatinine in Patients with Renal Impairment Attending Yobe State Specialist Hospital Damaturu

Authors : Abubakar El-Ishaq ; Amina M. Garba ; Deji Dairo Emanuel
Electrolytes, urea and creatinine are major factor in the determining a healthy kidney performance. Renal impairment is one of the kidney stages that can alter the concentration of these electrolytes. This study was carried out in order to access the biochemical concentrations of urea, electrolytes and creatinine in patients with renal impairment attending Yobe state specialist hospital Damaturu. One hundred (100) blood samples were collected randomly from the patients. Automated chemistry analyzer (Selectra proS) was used for determination of urea and creatinine. For the determination of concentration of electrolytes in blood samples, electrolytes analyzer known as Ion selective electrolyte (ISE) was used. Electrolytes determined and compare with normal values includes: bicarbonate (HCO3-) 20-30 mmol/l, potassium (K+) 2.5-5.0 mmol/l, chloride (Cl-) 95-110 mmol/l, and sodium (Na+) 135-145 mmol/l. The results obtained was distributed into three (3) groups depending on the age categories; group 1 (1-30years), group 2 (31-60 years), and group 3(60-90 years). The gender ratio male to female patients examined was 52:48. Generally, the obtained result showed that females age 31-60 years are the most affected by the renal impairment, and this called for Government intervention in order to solve the causes of kidney impairment in the society.

Pages: 114-122

Manufacture of Hard Gelatin Capsules From a Lyophilisate of the Morus Nigra Fruit

Authors : Sandra Isabel Hernández-González ; Jesús Iván García-Castañeda ; José de Jesús Alba-Romero ; Aurora Martínez-Romero ; Rodolfo Gerardo Chew-Madinaveitia ; José Luis Ortega-Sanchez
Morus nigra L. (M. nigra L.) belongs to the Moraceae family. Traditional medicine for its physicochemical properties. To evaluate the physicochemical composition and pharmaceutical stability of hard gelatin capsules of the freeze-dried fruit of M. nigra L. The content of total phenols (CFT) and antioxidant capacity (CA) were evaluated by spectrophotometry, the content of ash, moisture, protein, fat and fiber were determined according to their own standard. The CFT and CA were 25.4 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of sample, and 74.1% inhibition, respectively. On the other hand, the values of ash, moisture, protein, fat and fiber were 4.2%, 7.9%, 3.9%, 0.5% and 3.6%, respectively. Lyophilized M. nigra fruit may be a novel candidate for the development of gelatin hard capsules and other new pharmaceutical products.

Pages: 109-113

Cola Acuminata Nut Show Indication of Arrhythmia Management: Laboratory Examination of Extracts of Raw Versus Heat Processed Nuts

Authors : Attiogbe S. M. ; Adetunde L. ; Abagale S. A.
Chewing of nuts of Cola acuminata is a cultural practice in any African countries especially Ghana and Nigeria. The current study investigated antibacterial activity and phytochemical composition of methanol and ethanol Soxhlet extracts of raw, steamed and roasted cola nut on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus using the agar well diffusion method. Amoxillin and distilled water were used as controls. The ranges of mean zones of inhibition of the methanol and ethanol extracts of raw cola nut at 200mg/ml tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 10.00±0.00 to 15.00±0.00 and 10.50±1.50 to 12.00±0.00 respectively. The ranges of the mean zones of inhibition of the methanol and ethanol extracts of steamed cola nut at 200mg/ml tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 8.00±0.00 to 7.00±0.00 and 7.50±0.50 to 8.50±0.50 respectively. Those of the methanol and ethanol extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were 6.00±0.00 to 7.00±0.00 and 5.00±0.00 to 6.00±1.00 respectively. Raw cola nut was found to be most effective against the two microbes. However, Amoxicillin at concentration 200mg/ml presented the highest mean zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (36.00±0.00) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29.00±0.00), while distilled water had no inhibitory on the two microbes. Extract concentrations from 120–30 mg/ml had similar trends of inhibition with the 200mg/ml concentration. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, terpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and phenols in both methanol and ethanol extracts of the raw, steamed and roasted cola nut.

Pages: 101-108

First to Respond Last To Leave:  The Role of Para-Military Agencies in Disaster Management: Evidence from Nigeria

Authors : Raimi Morufu Olalekan ; Ayinla Lateefat Olajumoke ; Ogah Alima
Shortly after the recent fire’s disaster in Lagos, Kano, Katsina and Oyo market in Nigeria, an account of the activities and initiatives of para-military agencies in disaster management was conducted. A review of these inventories shows some significant changes in both the types of activities being undertaken by para-military agencies. The inventories document a rapid increase in the number of roles played in recovery. In building resilience to all hazards, it is necessary to better understand the roles that different para-military agencies played, not only in recovery, but across all levels of disaster risk reduction. These roles range from leading first aid through to co-producing knowledge underpinning risk management strategies and actions. Every para-military agency has the capacity to weave disaster readiness, response and recovery, and risk reduction into their core organization mandate, and therefore represent a valuable, though often underestimated and poorly understood resource. Hence, it is therefore recommended that there is need to build the collaboration of the various agencies of government and partner international organizations and also build the capacities of the implementation agencies and regulatory bodies, their influence over the lifecycle be increased and public awareness increasing around issues related to disaster risk, while promoting public participation in the processes of development. This view provides much needed guidance to decision makers to take action towards a more resilient future.

Pages: 96-100

An Overview on Biopolymer: A Novelistic Bio-Excipient in Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery

Authors : Sushant Kumar ; N. V. Satheesh Madhav ; Anurag Verma ; Kamla Pathak ; Swarnima Pandey
The point of this review is to feature the novelistic properties as bioexcipient, isolated from different regular natural sources like legumes, seeds, leaves, vegetables, bits, roots, barks and so on and to investigate the probability in medication conveyance framework. The biomaterial s have been exposed to different physicochemical assessments alongside unearthly examination including UV, FT-IR, Mass and 1H NMR. The confined biomaterial was discovered tom be polymeric in nature having a various utilitarian properties. Based on its inbuilt polymeric properties, the biomaterial secluded from various sources, can be utilized as an option in contrast to accessible standard polymers at extremely efficient economical scale. The separated biopolymer comprised of an interesting polymeric properties like accessible standard polymers. The isolated biomaterial from natural sources shown distinctive inbuilt polymeric properties by execution of various physico-substance examination. As we probably are aware there are various polymers accessible and oftentimes utilized design of novel medication. Yet, detached biomaterial from natural sources have demonstrated about their novelistic various properties like biodegradability, bioretardant, bioadhesive, filmability etc.

Pages: 90-95

Excess Weight Among Preschool Children in a Lower-Middle-Income Country: Predictors and Perspectives of Prevention

Authors : Sihem Ben Fredj ; Rim Ghammam ; Nawel Zammit ; Samah Ben Ammar ; Asma Ammar ; Yosra Hasni ; Souhir Chelly ; Jihen Maatoug ; Hassen Ghannem
Objective: We aimed to assess the weight status and to determine predicted factors of excess weight among Tunisian preschool children. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among preschoolers attending kindergarten during 2016-2017 school-years in Sousse, Tunisia. The children’s parents completed the self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometric measures (Weight and height) were taken for the children. Weight status considered body mass index (BMI) and excess weight was defined by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) standards. Odds ratios for excess weight were calculated using binary logistic regression analyses. Results: A total of 364 preschoolers were included with a mean age 4.49±0.9 years. The ratio boys/girls was 1.05. The prevalence of excess weight was 31.3%; CI95%:[26.7%-36.5%]). Female gender (AOR=1.74; CI95%:[1.07-2.83]), working mother (AOR=1.75;CI95%:[1.04-2.92]), sedentary behavior (AOR=1.87;CI95%:[1.01-3.51]), eating sweets (AOR=1.95;CI95%:[1.19-3.19]), eating while watching television (AOR=2.53;CI95%:[1.23-5.18]) were positively associated with greater risk of excess weight while sleep duration<10h (AOR=0.41;CI95%:[0.24-0.71]) and less educated mother (AOR=0.35;CI95%:[0.12-0.96]) were negatively associated with excess weight. Conclusion: Our results show that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschoolers was alarming. Prevention of obesity should start early in life through a multisectoral approach.

Pages: 82-89

Assessment of Mycological Quality of Groundwater in Yenagoa Metropolis, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Authors : Glory Richard ; Ebinyo Rebecca Aseibai
This study examined the mycological quality of groundwater in Yenagoa metropolis, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Triplicate water samples were obtained from 8 locations in the metropolis, and the fungi quality analyzed following standard microbiological procedures. Results showed that total fungi density ranged from 5.2±1.00 x102 to 8.50±0.56 x103 CFU/ml. Analysis of variance indicates statistical variation (p=0.001) across locations with total fungi density exceeding the limit of 102 CFU/ml specified by World Health Organization/Food and Agricultural Organization for potable water in 62.50% of samples. Eight fungi isolates (species) were identified in the study with frequency across the locations as follows: Aspergillus flavus (20.59%), Aspergillus fumigatus (20.59%), Aspergillus niger (20.59%), Cladosporum (5.88%), Fusarium (2.94%), Mucor (8.82%), Penicilium (14.71%) and Rhizopus (5.88%). Of these, Aspergillus species were predominant across the locations.  Since groundwater meets diverse purposes, it is essential that it is suitable for the desired use, and this can be done using appropriate technology to make groundwater potable for human consumption.

Pages: 76-81

Perspective of Ion Channels in Prostate Cancer

Authors : Nnodim Johnkennedy ; Bako Hauwa ; Ezekwesiri Cletus
Ion channels are membrane proteins, which play a great role in regulating cellular excitability. Alteration of ion channel may contribute to prostate cancer. This could be linked to inherited mutations of ion channel genes which alter channel’s biophysical properties, in a prostate cancer. It is an observed fact that genomic instability is the main cause as well as the major characteristics of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer cell genotypes are mainly characterized by uncontrolled metastasis, resistance to programmed cell death, sustained angiogenesis as well as tissue invasion and metastasis. It is known that genes encoding ion channels are affected in prostate cancer. The Membrane proteins which is involved in signaling in cell and among cells, for coupling of extracellular events with intracellular responses, and for maintaining intracellular ionic homeostasis ion channels which contribute to some extents to pathophysiological features of each prostate cancer.

Pages: 72-75

Assessment of Hazards, Health Consciousness and Health Seeking Behavior of Automobile Mechanics in Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana

Authors : Simon Assefuah Mensah ; Mainprice A. Essuman ; Augustine S. Brah ; Phyllis A. Aboagye ; Alex Boye
Objective: Automobile mechanics are exposed to a wide range of chemicals contained in brake fluids, detergents, lubricants, paints, metal cleaners, solvents and fluids. Constant exposure to these chemicals puts mechanics at risk. This study aimed to assess the diverse hazards in working environment of automobile mechanics in Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana. Method: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 225 automobile mechanics in Cape Coast Metropolis. The questionnaire sought information on possible hazards, health problems associated with work, use of personal protective equipment and where workers seek help when they fall ill. The interview was followed by measurement of blood pressure, hematological profile and liver function test. Results: Most auto-mechanics, welders, car sprayers and electricians were exposed to diesel, electrodes, paints and soldering iron respectively. Productive cough, abdominal pain, nausea and breathlessness were common clinical conditions reported by these mechanics. Blood pressure and haematological parameters were all in their normal ranges when compared to bench reference ranges. Conclusion: Most mechanics were conscious about their health, however, showed poor health seeking behavior and poor use of protective measures against possible hazards. Proper education of this economically viable group on workplace hazards, the types and properties of the different protective devices in order to safeguard their health is needed.

Pages: 63-71

Socio-Demographic Association of Multiple Risk Factors and Their Clustering in Urban Population of Adults

Authors : Dhekra Chebil ; Jihene Maatoug ; Rim Ghammem ; Nawel Zammit ; Sihem Ben Fredj ; Hassen Ghannem
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify factors associated with simultaneous risk factors occurrence (clustering) for chronic diseases among adults. Methods:  A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out with 1977 adults in Sousse, Tunisia. The simultaneous occurrence of tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, inadequate or unhealthy diet, obesity, and high blood pressure was assessed. The independent variables were demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Results: Overall, 61% of Tunisian adults had two or more unhealthy risk factors compared to only 11% with none of the five risk factors. Prevalence of risk factors was greater in older subjects, females, married, with lower education, unemployed, and those with high socioeconomic status. Risk factors clustered in multiple combinations. The simultaneous presence of all risk factors was 40% higher of what would be expected by combining the individual prevalence of these risk factors. Physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, obesity, and high blood pressure showed the strongest association among the clusters. Conclusion: Multiple chronic disease risk factors are frequent and occur more often than expected among Tunisian adults, especially women, married, older subjects, with low education and high socioeconomic level. Information on high risk groups will help in planning future preventive strategies.

Pages: 55-62